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Original article Association of healthy lifestyle factors with the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and their comorbidity in Korea: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2019–2021
Ji-Sook Kong1orcid , Mi Kyung Kim2orcid
Epidemiol Health 2024;e2024049
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024049 [Accepted]
Published online: May 1, 2024
1Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea; Institute for Health and Society, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea, Seoul, Korea
2Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul; Institute for Health and Society, Hanyang University, Seoul; Graduate School of Public Health, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding author:  Mi Kyung Kim,
Email: kmkkim@hanyang.ac.kr
Received: 8 March 2024   • Revised: 9 April 2024   • Accepted: 16 April 2024
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OBJECTIVES
We investigated the association of individual healthy lifestyle factors (HLFs) and their combined healthy lifestyle score (HLS) with hypertension and/or dyslipidemia.
METHODS
We analyzed data from 10,693 adults aged ≥19 from the 2019 to 2021 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. HLS was evaluated based on smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. Using logistic regression models, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the associations of HLFs and HLS with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and their comorbidity.
RESULTS
The prevalence of hypertension alone, dyslipidemia alone, and their comorbidity was 8.69%, 24.6%, and 15.0%, respectively. Multivariable models showed an inverse association of hypertension (OR, 0.37; 95% CI; 0.30–0.46) and dyslipidemia (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.32–0.41) with healthy BMI. Hypertension was inversely associated with healthy alcohol consumption (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.35–0.61) and diet (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63–0.99), whereas dyslipidemia was inversely associated with non-smoking (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.43–0.60). Physical activity was inversely associated with their comorbidity (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56–0.85). Adherence to HLS was associated with significantly lower odds of hypertension (81%), dyslipidemia (66%), and their conditions (89%) (all ptrend<0.001). Stratified analyses consistently showed inverse associations between HLS and hypertension and/or dyslipidemia independently of demographic factors (pinteractions>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
HLFs were associated with lower risk for hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. Obesity may contribute significantly to the risk of these conditions, while relevant HLFs for individual chronic diseases may vary significantly.


Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health