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Systematic Review The effectiveness of protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise programs among community-dwelling older adults with sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Phatcharaphon Whaikidorcid , Noppawan Piaseuorcid
Epidemiol Health 2024;46e2024030-0
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024030
Published online: February 14, 2024
Ramathibodi School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
Corresponding author:  Noppawan Piaseu,
Email: noppawan.pia@mahidol.edu
Received: 25 October 2023   • Accepted: 10 January 2024
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OBJECTIVES
The combination of protein supplementation and resistance exercise shows promise for improving and maintaining muscle mass, strength, and performance in older adults with sarcopenia. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of this combination on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in community-dwelling older adults with sarcopenia.
METHODS
We conducted a comprehensive search of 4 electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and the MEDLINE Library. The search covered literature from January 2013 to January 2023 and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of each study using the standard critical appraisal tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI). Meta-analysis was performed with the JBI Sumari program.
RESULTS
The review included 7 randomized controlled trials and 1 quasi-experimental study, encompassing a total of 854 participants aged 60 years and above. The study durations ranged from 10 weeks to 24 weeks. An analysis of standardized mean differences (SMDs) showed that protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise significantly increased muscle mass (SMD, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13 to 1.78; p<0.05) and muscle strength (SMD, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.56; p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Although the limited number of randomized controlled trials restricts the robustness of our conclusions, the evidence suggests that protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise is effective in enhancing muscle mass and strength in community-dwelling older adults with sarcopenia.


Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health