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Predictive ability of the Chinese visceral adiposity index for incident hypertension in working-aged Koreans
Ju Young Jung, Chang-Mo Oh, Hyun chul Jo, Sung Keun Park
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024034.   Published online February 27, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024034
  • 2,129 View
  • 117 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) was developed to assess visceral adipose tissue in the Asian population. This study evaluated the predictive ability of the CVAI for incident hypertension in Korean adults.
METHODS
The study participants included 128,577 Koreans without hypertension. They were grouped in quartiles according to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adipose index (VAI), and CVAI values. The Cox proportional hazard assumption was used to evaluate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident hypertension (adjusted HR [95% CI]) according to quartile level across a follow-up period of 6.9 years. Subgroup analyses were conducted by gender and obesity. The area under the curve was calculated to compare the predictive abilities of all indices (BMI, WC, VAI, and CVAI) for incident hypertension.
RESULTS
The CVAI was proportionally associated with the risk of hypertension in all participants (quartile 1: reference; quartile 2: 1.71 [95% CI, 1.59 to 1.82]; quartile 3: 2.41 [95% CI, 2.25 to 2.58]; and quartile 4: 3.46 [95% CI, 3.23 to 3.71]). Time dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the CVAI was superior to BMI, WC, and VAI in predicting hypertension at the 2-year, 4-year, 6-year, and 8-year follow-ups. This finding was also observed in the gender and obesity subgroups. The predictive ability of the CVAI was greater in the women and non-obese subgroups than in the men and obese subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS
The CVAI was a stronger predictor of hypertension than BMI, WC, and VAI.
Summary
Korean summary
고혈압은 심혈관 질환의 주요 원인이다. 내장 지방은 비만에서 고혈압의 병태 생리에 중요한 역할을 한다. 최근의 연구는 Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI)가 다른 비만 지표 보다 아시아 인에서 심혈관 질환의 고 위험군을 더욱 잘 구분해 낸다는 것을 보고하였다. 우리는 체질량 지수, 허리 둘레, visceral adiposity index, CVAI의 고혈압에 대한 예측력을 비교 하였다. 우리의 연구는 CVAI가 고혈압을 예측하는데 있어 다른 지표 보다 우월하다는 것을 보여주었다.
Key Message
Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is known that visceral adiposity has an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in obesity. Recent studies have demonstrated that Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) is more discriminative the high risk group for cardiovascular disease in Asians than other obesity indices. We compared the predictive ability for the development hypertension among body mass index, waist circumference, visceral adiposity index, and CVAI. Our study showed that CVAI is superior to predict hypertension than other indices.

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  • Association of traditional and novel obesity indicators with stroke risk: Findings from the Rural Chinese cohort study
    Dongdong Zhang, Weifeng Huo, Weiling Chen, Xi Li, Pei Qin, Ming Zhang, Jing Li, Xizhuo Sun, Yu Liu, Dongsheng Hu
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Associations of active and passive tobacco exposure with elevated blood pressure in Korean adolescents
Hyerin Park, Hyunsuk Jeong, Hyeon Woo Yim, Sanghyuk Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024028.   Published online February 13, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024028
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To test the hypothesis that tobacco exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure (EBP) in Korean adolescents, and that the association is dose dependent.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study used data from the 2011-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES). Subjects were eligible if they were 13-18 years at the time of participation in KNHANES. Tobacco exposure was defined by urine cotinine level. The main outcomes were EBP and hypertension. Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.4 with appropriate sampling weights to account for the complex survey design, stratification, and cluster variable.
RESULTS
A total of 2,518 adolescents was included in the analysis, representing 2.5 million Korean adolescents. The mean± standard deviation participant age was 15.3±1.7 years, and 55.3% were male. The number of participants with active tobacco smoke exposure was 283 (11.2%), passive tobacco smoke exposure was 145 (5.8%), and no smoke exposure was 2,090 (83.0%). Analysis of the 2,518 urine-cotinine-verified participants showed that tobacco smoke exposure had a significant effect on EBP: with an odds of elevated blood pressure of 3.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 7.89). The odds of hypertension were 3.61 (95% CI, 1.13 to 11.49) in the active smoking group compared with the no tobacco exposure group after adjustment for potential confounders.
CONCLUSIONS
It is necessary to present a range of public health plans to reduce tobacco exposure that affects adolescents’ blood pressure, and further research with a larger number of participants using urine cotinine as a biomarker is needed.
Summary
Korean summary
청소년기의 고혈압은 성인기의 다양한 질병을 초래할 수 있는 주요 원인이다. 흡연과 고혈압의 관계에 관한 다수의 연구들이 있으나 상반된 결과들이 보고되었고 국내 청소년의 직 간접적 담배 연기 노출과 혈압과의 연관성은 명확하게 밝혀지지 않았다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 한국 청소년에서 담배 연기 노출과 혈압 상승과의 연관성을 확인해 보고자 하였다. 연구 결과 직접 흡연을 하는 청소년들은 비흡연군에 비하여 3배 이상 혈압이 증가하는 것으로 나타났다.
Key Message
Hypertension during adolescence is a leading cause of disease in adults. The relationship between smoking and hypertension has been studied, but findings between studies are conflicting. Nicotine is a known toxin, but the relationship between active and passive smoking and blood pressure in adolescents is not clear. So that we tested and found adolescents in Korea who were active smokers showed over 3-fold increased risk of elevated blood pressure.
Association of blood pressure measurements in sitting, supine, and standing positions with the 10-year risk of mortality in Korean adults
Inkyung Baik, Nan Hee Kim, Seong Hwan Kim, Chol Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023055.   Published online June 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023055
  • 7,135 View
  • 183 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This prospective cohort study investigated the association between blood pressure (BP) as measured in different body postures and all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality risk.
METHODS
This population-based investigation included 8,901 Korean adults in 2001 and 2002. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured sequentially in the sitting, supine, and standing positions and classified into 4 categories: (1) normal, SBP <120 mmHg and DBP <80 mmHg; (2) high normal/prehypertension, SBP 120-129 mmHg and DBP <80 mmHg/SBP 130-139 mmHg or DBP 80-89 mmHg; (3) grade 1 hypertension (HTN), with SBP 140-159 mmHg or DBP 90-99 mmHg; and (4) grade 2 HTN, SBP ≥160 mmHg or DBP ≥100 mmHg. The date and cause of individual deaths were confirmed in the death record data compiled until 2013. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression.
RESULTS
Significant associations were found between the BP categories and all-cause mortality, but only when BPs were measured in the supine position. The multivariate hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals, [CIs]) were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.75) and 1.59 (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.39) for grade 1 HTN and grade 2 HTN, respectively, compared with the normal category. The associations between the BP categories and CV mortality were significant regardless of body posture among participants ≥65 years, whereas they were significant for supine BP measurements only in those <65 years.
CONCLUSIONS
BP measured in the supine position predicted all-cause mortality and CV mortality better than BP measured in other postures.
Summary
Korean summary
본 역학 연구는 한국 성인 8,901명을 연구대상자로 하여 기초조사에서 세가지 자세, 즉 앉은 자세, 누운 자세, 일어선 자세에서 혈압을 측정하고, 이후 10년 동안의 사망 여부를 추적조사하여, 측정 자세에 따른 혈압과 사망 위험과의 관련성을 분석하였다. 그 결과, 누운 자세에서 측정된 고혈압(기준: 수축기 혈압이 140 mmHg 이상 혹은 이완기 혈압이 90 mmHg 이상)인 사람은 정상 혈압(기준: 수축기 혈압이 120 mmHg 미만이고 이완기 혈압이 80 mmHg 미만)인 사람에 비해 36%(1단계 고혈압) 혹은 59%(2단계 고혈압) 가량 총 사망 위험이 유의적으로 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 이에 비해, 앉은 자세 및 일어선 자세에서 측정, 정의된 고혈압은 총 사망 위험을 증가시켰지만 유의적인 결과를 나타내지 못했다. 추후 연구에서 재확인이 필요하지만, 본 연구 결과가 시사하는 바는 앉은 자세나 일어선 자세보다 누운 자세에서 측정하는 혈압이 총 사망 위험을 더 잘 예측하므로, 고혈압 진단 외의 추가적인 활용 가능성이 있는 것으로 평가된다.
Key Message
The current epidemiological study revealed that blood pressure measured in a supine position could predict all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality better than blood pressure measured in a sitting or standing position. As a result, blood pressure measurements in a supine position may be useful in assessing mortality risk.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Safety of midodrine in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a retrospective cohort study
    Ming-Ju Wu, Cheng-Hsu Chen, Shang-Feng Tsai
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Association of multiple anthropometric indices with in 944,760 elderly Chinese people
Lirong Dong, Yuanyuan Wang, Jinshui Xu, Yang Zhou, Guiju Sun, Dakang Ji, Haijian Guo, Baoli Zhu
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023046.   Published online April 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023046
  • 4,376 View
  • 134 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aims of this study were to update the latest data on the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in the elderly Chinese population and to assess relationships between new anthropometric indices and HTN.
METHODS
Data were obtained from the Basic Public Health Service (BPHS) survey for Jiangsu Province, China. A total of 944,760 people aged 65 years and older were included in this study. Blood pressure was measured by trained investigators. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), conicity index (COI), body roundness index (BRI), and a body shape index (ABSI) were included in the analysis as anthropometric indices. Logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic splines were used to evaluate the association of anthropometric indices with HTN.
RESULTS
The prevalence of HTN among elderly residents of Jiangsu Province was 64.7% (95% confidence interval, 64.6 to 64.8). After adjusting for multiple covariates, all anthropometric indices except ABSI showed significant non-linear positive dose-response associations with HTN across sex (p<sub>nonlinear</sub><0.001). Among participants with BMI <28 kg/m<sup>2</sup>, abnormal weight, WC, WtHR, BRI, COI, and ABSI were positively associated with HTN.
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of HTN in the elderly in Jiangsu Province is gradually increasing. It is necessary to consider the combination of ABSI and COI with BMI for screening elderly individuals for HTN in follow-up prospective studies.
Summary
Key Message
We have conducted a comprehensive review of the supplementary material and have implemented the necessary modifications. We would like to extend our sincere apologies for any inconvenience that may have been caused during your work. Additionally, we have taken note of the fact that certain fields within the Author Contribution and ORCID sections were not previously verified. To rectify this situation and eliminate any potential ambiguity, we have diligently re-entered the information in question.

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  • Comparison of seven anthropometric indexes to predict hypertension plus hyperuricemia among U.S. adults
    Ye Li, Ling Zeng
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
The associations of obesity phenotypes with the risk of hypertension and its transitions among middle-aged and older Chinese adults
Ziyue Sheng, Shang Lou, Jin Cao, Weidi Sun, Yaojia Shen, Yunhan Xu, Ziyang Ren, Wen Liu, Qian Yi, Peige Song
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023043.   Published online April 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023043
  • 4,927 View
  • 91 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to investigate the associations of obesity phenotypes with hypertension stages, phenotypes, and transitions among middle-aged and older Chinese.
METHODS
Using the 2011-2015 waves of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis included 9,015 subjects and a longitudinal analysis included 4,961 subjects, with 4,872 having full data on the hypertension stage and 4,784 having full data on the hypertension phenotype. Based on body mass index and waist circumstance, subjects were categorized into 4 mutually exclusive obesity phenotypes: normal weight with no central obesity (NWNCO), abnormal weight with no central obesity (AWNCO), normal weight with central obesity (NWCO), and abnormal weight with central obesity (AWCO). Hypertension stages were classified into normotension, pre-hypertension, stage 1 hypertension, and stage 2 hypertension. Hypertension phenotypes were categorized as normotension, pre-hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH). The association between obesity phenotypes and hypertension was estimated by logistic regression. A comparison between different sexes was conducted by testing the interaction effect of sex.
RESULTS
NWCO was associated with normal→stage 2 (odds ratio [OR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 3.42), maintained stage 1 (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.29), and normal→ISH (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.85). AWCO was associated with normal→stage 1 (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.19), maintained stage 1 (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 2.06 to 3.72), maintained stage 2 (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.50 to 5.25), normal→ISH (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.02), and normal→SDH (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.72 to 3.75). An interaction effect of sex existed in the association between obesity phenotypes and hypertension stages.
CONCLUSIONS
This study highlights the importance of various obesity phenotypes and sex differences in hypertension progression. Tailored interventions for different obesity phenotypes may be warranted in hypertension management, taking into account sex-specific differences to improve outcomes.
Summary
Key Message
This study elucidates the distinct associations between obesity phenotypes and various hypertension stages and phenotypes. Furthermore, it reveals significant sex differences in the risk for hypertension stages, phenotypes, and transitions, providing essential insights for targeted interventions and personalized medicine.
COVID-19: Health Statistics
Changes in the management of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: data from the 2010-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Kyungwon Oh, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023014.   Published online February 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023014
  • 5,528 View
  • 169 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to analyze the changes in chronic disease management indicators, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesteremia, from 2010-2020 and before (2019) and during (2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
METHODS
This study included 58,504 individuals aged ≥30 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2020. Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of chronic diseases and the difference in those between before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed using the SAS program PROC SURVEYREG.
RESULTS
From 2010-2020, the awareness, treatment, and control in adults aged ≥30 years for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia continuously improved, whereas no significant change in the management indicators of diabetes mellitus was observed. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in men increased from before to during the COVID- 19 pandemic. However, there was no significant change in the management indicators of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in men and women, and the awareness, treatment, and control rates for hypercholesterolemia increased by 5.5%p, 6.9%p, and 4.1%p respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
In 2020, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia increased, but the management indicators of the chronic diseases did not significantly deteriorate. Considering the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to monitor changes in chronic disease management indicators and to develop efficient and accessible chronic disease prevention and management programs.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사 자료를 분석한 결과 11년간(2010-2020년) 성인의 고혈압, 고콜레스테롤혈증 인지율, 치료율, 치료자 중 조절률은 개선된 반면 당뇨병은 변화가 없었다. 코로나19 유행 전(2019년)·후(2020년) 비교시 남자에서 고혈압, 당뇨병, 고콜레스테롤혈증 유병률이 증가했다. 그러나 고혈압, 당뇨병 관리지표는 변화가 없었고, 고콜레스테롤혈증 관리지표만 개선되었다.
Key Message
The rates of awareness, treatment, and control in adults aged ≥30 years for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia continuously improved, whereas no significant change in the management indicators of diabetes mellitus was observed over the past 11 years (2010-2020). The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in men increased from before (2019) to during (2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there was no significant change in the management indicators of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in men and women, and that of hypercholesterolemia improved.

Citations

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  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Obesity, Metabolic Parameters and Clinical Values in the South Korean Adult Population
    Anna Kim, Eun-yeob Kim, Jaeyoung Kim
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(10): 2814.     CrossRef
  • Topic Modeling-Based Analysis of News Keywords Related to Patients with Diabetes during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Jeong-Won Han, Jung Min Kim, Hanna Lee
    Healthcare.2023; 11(7): 957.     CrossRef
Original Articles
The associations of job strain and leisure-time physical activity with the risk of hypertension: the population-based Midlife in the United States cohort study
Xinyue Liu, Timothy A. Matthews, Liwei Chen, Jian Li
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022073.   Published online September 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022073
  • 7,396 View
  • 229 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Job strain is positively associated with incident hypertension, while increasing leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) can reduce incident hypertension. However, the joint associations of job strain and LTPA with incident hypertension among United States workers have yet to be investigated. This study examined the independent and joint associations of job strain and LTPA with incident hypertension.
METHODS
This prospective cohort study (n=1,160) utilized data from the population-based Midlife in the United States study. The associations of job strain and LTPA at baseline with incident hypertension during follow-up were examined using Cox proportional hazards models. High job strain was derived from a combination of high job demands and low job control, and high LTPA was defined as engagement in moderate or vigorous LTPA at least once per week.
RESULTS
During 9,218 person-years of follow-up, the hypertension incidence rate was 30.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 27.3 to 34.3) per 1,000 person-years. High job strain was associated with a higher risk for hypertension than low job strain (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.67). High LTPA was associated with lower hypertension risk than low LTPA (aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.98). Hypertension risk was higher among workers with high job strain and low LTPA than among those with low job strain and high LTPA (aHR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.43).
CONCLUSIONS
Job strain and LTPA showed positive and inverse associations, respectively, with incident hypertension. The combination of high job strain and low LTPA was associated with the highest risk for hypertension.
Summary
Key Message
High job strain and low leisure-time physical activity are independent risk factors for hypertension among workers, and those with high job strain and low leisure-time physical activity are at the highest risk, so it is critical that policy interventions target job strain and leisure-time physical activity to reduce hypertension.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prospective associations of occupational and leisure-time physical activity with risk of diabetes: a cohort study from the United States
    Timothy A Matthews, Xinyue Liu, Liwei Chen, Jian Li
    Annals of Work Exposures and Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • 2023 ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension
    Giuseppe Mancia, Reinhold Kreutz, Mattias Brunström, Michel Burnier, Guido Grassi, Andrzej Januszewicz, Maria Lorenza Muiesan, Konstantinos Tsioufis, Enrico Agabiti-Rosei, Engi Abd Elhady Algharably, Michel Azizi, Athanase Benetos, Claudio Borghi, Jana Br
    Journal of Hypertension.2023; 41(12): 1874.     CrossRef
  • Adulthood Psychosocial Disadvantages and Risk of Hypertension in U.S. Workers: Effect Modification by Adverse Childhood Experiences
    Timothy A. Matthews, Yifang Zhu, Wendie Robbins, Mary Rezk-Hanna, Paul M. Macey, Yeonsu Song, Jian Li
    Life.2022; 12(10): 1507.     CrossRef
  • Associations of COVID-19 Related Work Stressors with Psychological Distress: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Californian Workers
    Timothy A. Matthews, Megan Guardiano, Negar Omidakhsh, Lara Cushing, Wendie Robbins, OiSaeng Hong, Jian Li
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 20(1): 144.     CrossRef
Late eating, blood pressure control, and cardiometabolic risk factors among adults with hypertension: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2018
Jee-Seon Shim, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021101.   Published online November 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021101
  • 9,986 View
  • 161 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Despite growing concerns regarding the timing of eating, little is known about the association between late eating and health. This study aimed to investigate whether late eating is associated with blood pressure (BP) control and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adults with hypertension.
METHODS
Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2018 were used. Adults with hypertension aged 30-79 years (n=13,361) were included in this study. Dietary intake and information on meal timing were assessed using 1-day 24-hour recall. Late eating was defined as after the median midpoint between the times of the first and the last eating episode during the recall day. Logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the associations of late eating with BP control and cardiometabolic risk factors.
RESULTS
Among late eaters, there were more men than women. Compared to early eaters, late eaters were younger, had a higher body mass index (BMI) and unhealthier habits, and their overall dietary quality score was lower. A negative association between late eating and BP control was found in a univariate model (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.12), but this association disappeared after adjustment for confounders (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.12). Late eating was independently associated with higher BMI (p=0.03) and blood triglyceride concentration (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
Our results do not support a link between late eating and BP control among adults with hypertension, but suggest that late eating is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors.
Summary
Korean summary
식사시간이 건강에 미치는 영향에 대한 관심이 증가하고 있지만, 이에 대한 근거는 많지 않다. 이 연구는 국민건강영양조사 자료를 활용하여 고혈압이 있는 성인의 늦은 식사와 혈압 조절, 심장대사 위험인자의 연관성을 분석하였다. 늦은 식사와 혈압 조절의 독립적 연관성은 찾지 못했지만, 늦은 식사는 높은 체질량지수, 혈중 지질 농도와 연관성을 보여 식사 시간 조정이 고혈압 환자의 예후 개선을 위한 유용한 대책이 될 수 있으리라는 근거를 지지한다.
Key Message
This study investigated whether late eating is associated with blood pressure (BP) control and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adults with hypertension using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2018. We did not find an independent association between late eating and BP control among Korean adults with hypertension, but found that late eating was significantly associated with higher BMI and a higher blood concentration of triglycerides, independent of potential confounders. Our findings support the suggestion that a time-based dietary approach can be used as a useful strategy to improve the prognosis of adults with hypertension.

Citations

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  • Eating patterns in Korean adults, 1998–2018: increased energy contribution of ultra-processed foods in main meals and snacks
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    European Journal of Nutrition.2024; 63(1): 279.     CrossRef
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A hypertension risk score for adults: a population-based cross-sectional study from the Dubai Household Survey 2019
Ibrahim Mahmoud, Nabil Sulaiman, Amal Hussein, Heba Mamdouh, Wafa K. AL Nakhi, Hamid Y. Hussain, Gamal M. Ibrahim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021064.   Published online September 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021064
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to develop a risk score model for predicting hypertension specific to the population of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to facilitate prevention and early intervention.
METHODS
A retrospective analysis of data from the Dubai Household Health Survey 2019 was conducted. Demographic and physical parameters, as well as blood glucose levels, were included in the data. The risk factors for hypertension were identified using bivariate analysis. A risk score model was developed using the enter method, where all significant predictors of hypertension in bivariate analyses were entered in a single step with the primary outcome of hypertension status (yes/no). The model was validated internally by splitting the data into Emirati and non-Emirati populations.
RESULTS
A total of 2,533 subjects were studied. The significant risk factors for hypertension identified were male sex, older age (≥40 years), education level, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidaemia. The model showed a high discrimination ability between individuals with and without hypertension, with an area under the curve of 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.79), excellent sensitivity (81.0%; 95% CI, 71.9 to 88.2) and moderate specificity (56.0%; 95% CI, 45.7 to 65.9).
CONCLUSIONS
The model developed by this study is simple, convenient, and based on readily available demographic and medical characteristics. This risk score model could support initial hypertension screening and provide an effective tool for targeted lifestyle counselling and prevention programs.
Summary
Key Message
To prevent hypertension in Dubai's adult population, primary health care physicians can use our risk score model to recommend preventative measures, with a focus on men over 40 years old, with a low educational level, who are obese, and who have other morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia.
Trends in the prevalence and management of major metabolic risk factors for chronic disease over 20 years: findings from the 1998-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Yoonjung Kim, Sun Jin Nho, Gyeongji Woo, Hyejin Kim, Suyeon Park, Youngtaek Kim, Ok Park, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021028.   Published online April 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021028
  • 13,459 View
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  • 13 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to explore trends in the prevalence and management of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults from 1998 to 2018 using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
METHODS
The study participants included 79,753 individuals aged ≥ 30 years who had participated in the health examination and health interview of the first (1998) to the seventh (2016-2018) KNHANES. The prevalence and management as well as annual percent change (APC) in chronic diseases were analyzed using SAS and the Joinpoint software program.
RESULTS
The prevalence of obesity in men significantly increased from 26.8% in 1998 to 44.7% in 2018 (APC= 1.9, p< 0.001), whereas that in women decreased slightly from 30.5% in 1998 to 28.3% in 2018 (APC= -0.5, p< 0.001). The prevalence of hypertension in men was 33.2% in 2018, with no significant change, whereas that in women slightly decreased to 23.1% in 2018 (APC= -0.9, p< 0.001). The prevalence of diabetes in men increased slightly from 10.5% in 2005 to 12.9% in 2018 (APC= 1.6, p< 0.001), whereas that in women remained at approximately 8%, with no significant change. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia in both men and women increased 3-fold in 2018 (20.9% in men [APC = 8.2, p < 0.001] and 21.4% in women [APC= 7.1, p< 0.001]) compared to that in 2005. The awareness rate, treatment rate, and control rate of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia increased 2-3 fold. Regarding diabetes, the treatment rate increased, but the control rate did not change.
CONCLUSIONS
Over the past 20 years, the prevalence of obesity (in men), diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia has increased and management indicators, such as the awareness rate, treatment rate, and control rate of chronic diseases, have improved continuously.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사(1998-2018) 자료를 활용하여 우리나라 성인의 비만, 고혈압, 당뇨병, 고콜레스테롤혈증 유병률 및 관리수준을 분석한 결과, 20년 동안 비만(남자), 당뇨병, 고콜레스테롤혈증 만성질환의 유병 수준은 악화되고 있는 반면, 만성질환의 인지율, 치료율, 치료자 중 조절률 등 관리지표는 지속적으로 개선되고 있었다.
Key Message
We examined trends in the prevalence and management of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults from the 1998-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Over the past 20 years, the prevalence of obesity (in men), diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia has increased and management indicators, such as the awareness rate, treatment rate, and control rate of chronic diseases, have improved continuously.

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  • Deaths and disability-adjusted life years of hypertension in China, South Korea, and Japan: A trend over the past 29 years
    Yan Qiu, Junzhuang Ma, Jiahong Zhu, Ying Liu, Wen Ren, Shuaishuai Zhang, Jingjing Ren
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Lifestyle and dietary changes related to weight gain in college students during the COVID-19 pandemic
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  • Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and Obesity in Korean Adults
    Jee-Seon Shim, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(4): 547.     CrossRef
  • Changes in metabolic syndrome and the risk of breast and endometrial cancer according to menopause in Korean women
    Thi Xuan Mai Tran, Soyeoun Kim, Boyoung Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023049.     CrossRef
  • Diet quality partially mediates the association between ultraprocessed food consumption and adiposity indicators
    Jee‐Seon Shim, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim
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  • Changes in the management of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: data from the 2010–2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Kyungwon Oh, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
    Epidemiology and Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Clinical Hypertension.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sex-Specific Trends in the Prevalence of Hypertension and the Number of People With Hypertension: Analysis of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 1998–2018
    Eunsun Seo, Sunjae Jung, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Korean Circulation Journal.2022; 52(5): 382.     CrossRef
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    Sun A Choi, Sung Suk Chung, Jeong Ok Rho
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2022; 55(1): 120.     CrossRef
  • Obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Ga Bin Lee, Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Kyungwon Oh
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022041.     CrossRef
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    Hee-Taik Kang
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    Taiyue Jin, Eun Young Park, Byungmi Kim, Jin-Kyoung Oh
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  • Prevalence and management of hypertension in Korean adults
    Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(10): 633.     CrossRef
  • Effects of early medication treatment and metformin use for cancer prevention in diabetes patients: a nationwide sample cohort study in Korea using extended landmark time analysis
    Hwa Jeong Seo, Hyun Sook Oh
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Clinical outcomes of COVID-19 following the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers among patients with hypertension in Korea: a nationwide study
Ju Hwan Kim, Yeon-Hee Baek, Hyesung Lee, Young June Choe, Hyun Joon Shin, Ju-Young Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021004.   Published online December 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021004
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  • 8 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Recent evidence has shown no harm associated with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to further clarify the possible association between ACEI/ARB use and the risk of poor clinical outcomes of COVID-19.
METHODS
From the completely enumerated COVID-19 cohort in Korea, we identified 1,290 patients with hypertension, of whom 682 had and 603 did not have records of ACEI/ARB use during the 30-day period before their COVID-19 diagnosis. Our primary endpoint comprised clinical outcomes, including all-cause mortality, use of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and sepsis. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to mitigate selection bias, and a Poisson regression model to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for comparing outcomes between ACEI/ARB users and non-users.
RESULTS
Compared to non-use, ACEI/ARB use was associated with lower clinical outcomes (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.85; p=0.005). For individual outcomes, ACEI/ARB use was not associated with all-cause mortality (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.09; p=0.097) or respiratory events (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.17; p=0.904). Subgroup analysis showed a trend toward a protective role of ACEIs and ARBs against overall outcomes in men (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.03; p<sub>interaction</sub>=0.008) and patients with pre-existing respiratory disease (IPTW-adjusted RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.92; p<sub>interaction</sub>=0.002).
CONCLUSIONS
We present clinical evidence to support continuing ACE/ARB use in COVID-19 patients with hypertension based on the completely enumerated Korean cohort.
Summary
Korean summary
– 코로나-19 검사를 받은 69,793명 중에 코로나-19 양성이며 고혈압이 있는 1,290명을 연구대상자로 선정했으며, 이중 코로나-19 진단일로부터 30일이내에 ACEI 또는 ARB를 사용한 환자는 682명이었음. – ACEI 또는 ARB 사용은 비사용 대비 사망 또는 폐 관련 질환의 위험과의 관련성이 없었음. – 하위그룹 분석에서 남성 또는 기저 폐질환 보유 환자에서 ACEI 또는 ARB 사용이 코로나-19 예후 악화를 예방하는 트렌드를 보였음.
Key Message
– Among 69,793 individuals screened for COVID-19, we identified 1,290 patients with hypertension who tested positive, of whom 682 had records of using ACEIs or ARBs in the 30 days before their COVID-19 diagnosis. – ACEI/ARB use (compared with non-use) was not associated with all-cause mortality or respiratory events. – A subgroup analysis showed a trend toward a protective role of ACEIs and ARBs against the overall composite endpoint of poor outcomes in men and those with pre-existing respiratory disease.

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  • Systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical outcomes of ACEI/ARB in East-Asian patients with COVID-19
    Nancy Xurui Huang, Qi Yuan, Fang Fang, Bryan P. Yan, John E. Sanderson, Masaki Mogi
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(1): e0280280.     CrossRef
  • Mortality and Severity in COVID-19 Patients on ACEIs and ARBs—A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression Analysis
    Romil Singh, Sawai Singh Rathore, Hira Khan, Abhishek Bhurwal, Mack Sheraton, Prithwish Ghosh, Sohini Anand, Janaki Makadia, Fnu Ayesha, Kiran S. Mahapure, Ishita Mehra, Aysun Tekin, Rahul Kashyap, Vikas Bansal
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    Jordan Loader, Frances C. Taylor, Erik Lampa, Johan Sundström
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The patterns of lifestyle, metabolic status, and obesity among hypertensive Korean patients: a latent class analysis
Suyoung Kim, Seon Cho, Eun-Hee Nah
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020061.   Published online August 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020061
  • 10,497 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to identify latent classes in hypertensive patients based on the clustering of factors including lifestyle risk factors, metabolic risk factors, and obesity in each sex.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study included 102,780 male and 103,710 female hypertensive patients who underwent health check-ups at 16 centers in Korea, in 2018. A latent class analysis approach was used to identify subgroups of hypertensive patients. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to examine the association between latent classes and comorbidities of hypertension.
RESULTS
A four-class model provided the best fit for each sex. The following latent classes were identified: Class I (male: 16.9%, female: 1.7%; high risk of lifestyle behaviors [HB] with metabolic disorders and obesity [MO]), Class II (male: 32.4%, female: 47.1%; low risk of lifestyle behaviors [LB] with MO), Class III (male: 15.3%, female: 1.8%; HB with metabolic disorders and normal weight [MNW]), Class IV (male: 35.5%, female: 49.4%; LB with MNW). Lifestyle patterns in the latent classes were classified as high-risk or low-risk according to smoking and high-risk drinking among male, and presented complex patterns including physical inactivity alone or in combination with other factors, among female. Stage 2 hypertensive or diabetic individuals were likely to belong to classes including obesity (HB-MO, LB-MO) in both sexes, and additionally belonged to the HB-MNW class in male.
CONCLUSIONS
Metabolic disorders were included in all latent classes, with or without lifestyle risk factors and obesity. Hypertensive females need to manage obesity, and hypertensive males need to manage lifestyle risk factors and obesity. Sex-specific lifestyle behaviors are important for controlling hypertension.
Summary
Korean summary
고혈압 환자에서 이질적인 집단을 확인하기 위해, 생활습관, 대사이상 및 비만에 기반한 잠재계층분석을 실시한 결과, 각 성별에서 4개 계층으로 분류되었다. 모든 계층에는 대사이상 상태가 포함되었으며, 고위험 생활습관과 비만(HB-MO), 저위험 생활습관과 비만(LB-MO), 고위험 생활습관과 정상체중(HB-MNW), 저위험 생활습관과 정상체중(LB-MNW)으로 유형화하였다. 생활습관 및 비만 여부와 상관없이 모든 잠재계층에 대사이상 상태가 포함된 점으로 고혈압과 대사상태의 긴밀한 관련성을 확인하였으며, 성별에 따라 이질적인 생활습관 패턴(여성에서는 비만 관리와 남성에서는 비만과 생활습관 개선을 강조)을 확인하였다.

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    Annette Løvheim Kleppang, Mario Vianna Vettore, Ingeborg Hartz, Siri Håvås Haugland, Tonje Holte Stea
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Pre-hypertension and the risk of diabetes mellitus incidence using a marginal structural model in an Iranian prospective cohort study
Ahmad Khosravi, Mohammad Hassan Emamian, Hassan Hashemi, Akbar Fotouhi
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018026.   Published online June 23, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018026
  • 12,187 View
  • 188 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-hypertension and its sub-classification on the development of diabetes.
METHODS
In this cohort study, 2,941 people 40 to 64 years old without hypertension or diabetes were followed from 2009 through 2014. According to the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC)-7 criteria, we classified participants into normal and pre-hypertension groups. The effect of pre-hypertension on the 5-year incidence rate of diabetes was studied using inverse probability of treatment weighting. We modeled the exposure and censored cases given confounding factors such as age, sex, body mass index, smoking, economic status, and education.
RESULTS
The 5-year incidence rate of diabetes among people with pre-hypertension and those with normal blood pressure (BP) was 12.7 and 9.7%, respectively. The risk ratio (RR) for people with pre-hypertension was estimated to be 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.41). The RRs among people with normal BP and high-normal BP, according to the JNC-6 criteria, compared to those with optimal BP were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.73 to 1.25) and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.72), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results showed that participants who had higher levels of BP (high-normal compared to optimal BP) had a higher risk of diabetes development. With regard to the quantitative nature of BP, using the specifically distinguishing of stage 1 hypertension or high-normal BP may be a more meaningful categorization for diabetes risk assessment than the JNC-7 classification.
Summary

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Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and risk factors of hypertension among adults: a cross-sectional study in Iran
Maryam Eghbali, Alireza Khosravi, Awat Feizi, Asieh Mansouri, Behzad Mahaki, Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018020.   Published online May 18, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018020
  • 16,588 View
  • 491 Download
  • 39 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Hypertension (HTN) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Considering the importance of this disease for public health, this study was designed in order to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and risk factors of HTN in the Iranian adult population.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,107 residents of Isfahan, Iran. Samples were selected through multi-stage random cluster sampling in 2015-2016. The outcome variable was HTN, determined by measuring blood pressure in the right arm via a digital arm blood pressure monitor. Awareness, treatment, and control of HTN were assessed by a validated and reliable researcher-developed questionnaire. Other demographic and clinical variables were assessed via a demographic questionnaire.
RESULTS
The overall prevalence of HTN was 17.3% (18.9 and 15.5% in men and women, respectively). The prevalence of HTN increased in both genders with age. The prevalence of awareness of HTN among people with HTN was 69.2%, of whom 92.4 and 59.9% were taking medication for HTN and had controlled HTN, respectively. Logistic regression identified age, body mass index, having diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and a positive family history of HTN as determinants of awareness of HTN.
CONCLUSIONS
The results showed that HTN was highly prevalent in the community, especially in men and in middle-aged and older adults. Approximately 30.8% of patients were unaware of their disease, and there was less awareness among younger adults. Despite the high frequency of taking medication to treat HTN, it was uncontrolled in more than 40.1% of patients. Health policy-makers should therefore consider appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies for these high-risk groups.
Summary

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    Asieh Mansouri, Alireza Khosravi Farsani, Noushin Mohammadifard, Fatemeh Nouri, Mahnaz Jozan, Ghazaal Alavi Tabatabaei, Rezvan Salehidoost, Hamed Rafiee
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    Bahareh Karami, Azam Azimi, Zohreh Rahimi, Sousan Mahmoudi, Nazanin Jalilian
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Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension in the Prehypertensive Population
Soo Jeong Kim, Jakyoung Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Chung Mo Nam, Kihong Chun, Il Soo Park, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2010;32:e2010003.   Published online May 1, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2010003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on progression from prehypertension (PreHTN) to hypertension (HTN) using an 8-yr prospective Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS) by the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) in Korea.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>A total of 16,229 subjects, aged 30 to 54, with new onset preHTN at baseline (1994-1996) in a biennial national medical exam were selected and followed up till 2004 at 2-yr intervals. All subjects underwent a biennial health examination including biochemical measurements and behavior. The log-rank test was performed to assess the relationship between changes in CVD risk factors and progression to HTN. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify factors influencing progression to HTN.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>With regards the progression rate in men, ex-smokers (42.9%), abstainers (37.5%), and regular exercisers (37.6%) showed a slower progression rate than continuous smokers (49.5%) and continuous drinkers (50.9%). In women, those who participated in regular exercise (22.6%) had a lower rate of progression than continuous non-exercisers (36.1%). According to the results of the Cox proportional hazard model, improvements in smoking (hazard ratio [HR], 0.756), drinking (HR, 0.669), regular exercise (HR, 0.653), body mass index (HR, 0.715), and total cholesterol (HR, 0.788) played a protective role in progression to HTN in men, while in women, participating in regular exercise (HR, 0.534) was beneficial.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSION</title><p>Improvements in CVD-related behaviors diminished the progression rate of HTN. This study suggests that individuals with PreHTN should be targeted for specific health behavioral intervention to prevent the progression of HTN.</p></sec>
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health